The government regulates the practice of medicine and subsidiary occupations, such as nursing and pharmacy. Life expectancy in 1999 was about 78 years. As of 2002, the crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, 11.2 and6.8 per 1,000 people. The infant mortality rate was an estimated4.9 per 1,000 births. In the mid-1990s, Liechtenstein had an estimated 2.5 physicians per 1,000 people, with a nurse to doctor ratio of 2:1. There were approximately 8.3 hospital beds per 1,000 people. A program of preventive medicine, introduced in 1976, provides regular examinations for children up to the age of 10.