The Latvian Academy of Sciences has divisions of physical and technical sciences and of chemical and biological sciences.
Fifteen research institutes, most attached to the academy, conduct medical, technical, and scientific research. The University of Latvia (founded in 1919) has faculties of physics and mathematics, chemistry, and biology. The Riga Technical University (founded in 1990) has various engineering faculties. Both are in Riga, as are the Latvian Academy of Medicine (founded in 1951), the Riga Aviation University (founded in 1919), and the Stradin Museum of the History of Medicine. The Latvian University of Agriculture (founded in 1939) is located in Jelgava, and the National Botanical Garden is situated in Salaspils. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 23% of university enrollment. In the same period, Latvia had 1,049 scientists and engineers and 351 technicians per million people engaged in research and development.