In 1935, the population was 77% Latvian, but according to 2002 estimates, the percentage of ethnic Latvians has dipped to only about 57.7%. Russians constitute about 29.6% of the population; Belarussians make up 4.1%; Ukrainians account for2.7%; Poles for 2.5%; Lithuanians for 1.4%; and others 2%. Nearly half the Russians and Ukrainians lived in Riga, where Russians formed a majority of the population. All residents of pre–1940 Latvia and their descendants are citizens. Naturalization requires 16 years' residence and fluency in Latvian.