As of 1998, out of a total land area of 6,205,000 hectares (15,333,000 acres), about 29% was crop land. Agriculture accounted for about 5% of GDP and engaged around 15% of the labor force in 2001. Agricultural output declined by an annual average of 7% during 1990–2000.
Privatization of agriculture progressed rapidly after 1991. By the beginning of 1993, over 50,000 private farms had been established, and many agricultural facilities were being privatized. Production of primary crops in 2000/01 (in thousands of tons) included wheat, 427.4; barley, 261.1; rye, 110.7; potatoes, 747.1; rapeseed, 10.0; and legumes, 3.9.