The major portion of the 10 million ha (24.7 million acres) of forest is in the Alpine areas of northern Italy; few extensive forests grow in central or southern Italy or on the islands. Italy has more softwood than hardwood growth and extensive coppice (thicket and small shrub) stands. The overall forest structure consists of 58% coppice stands, 23% softwoods, and 19% hardwood high stands. The only species that are commercially important are chestnut, beech, oak, and poplar. Chestnut and beech stands account for 30% of the hardwood forest and for over 40% of Italian wood production; oak comprises 6% of wood production. Poplar is the only species grown using managed forestry practices. Poplar plantations account for only 1% of the total forest area but for 50% of domestic wood output. Forest resources are stable and meet about 19% of annual demand. Italian wood output in 2001 consisted of 9 million cu m (318 million cu ft). About 57% of the timber cut was used for fuel wood. Approximately 90% of Italian forest product exports consist of wooden furniture, semi-finished wood products, and other finished wood products. The diversity in species composition, ownership patterns, topographic constraints, and conflicting resource management strategies have all contributed to limiting the productivity of Italian forest resources. Italy is a major importer of hardwood and softwood lumber, since its rugged terrain and disjointed forestland restrict domestic production. In 2001, the Italian wood and wood product sectors employed 413,872 workers in 87,546 companies with a total turnover of about $35 billion, with the furniture sector accounting for $20.8 billion. Some 80% of the raw materials used for manufacturing furnished wooden products are imported. Imports of forest products in 2001 were valued at $4.68 billion, while exports totaled $11.3 billion.