The population of Ireland in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 3,956,000, which placed it as number 121 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 11% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 21% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 99 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 1.12%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 4,398,000. The population density in 2002 was 54 per sq km (140 per sq mi).
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 59% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The capital city, Dublin, had a population of 977,000 in that year. The other largest urban centers were Cork (127,024), Limerick (52,040), Galway (50,842), and Waterford (40,345). According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000– 2005 was 1.2%.