Hungary - Science and technology



In 1987–97, 1,099 technicians and 510 scientists and engineers per million people were engaged in research and development. Total expenditures on research and development during that period amounted to 0.7% of GDP. In 1998, high-tech exports were valued at $3.9 billion and accounted for 21% of manufactured exports. Among major scientific organizations are the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (founded in 1825), the Association for Dissemination of Sciences (founded in 1841), and the Federation of Technical and Scientific Societies (founded in 1948), with 32 agricultural, medical, scientific, and technical member societies. In 1996, Hungary had 45 research institutes concerned with agriculture and veterinary science, medicine, natural sciences, and technology. There are 25 universities and colleges offering courses in basic and applied science. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 32% of university enrollment. In addition to the National Museum of Science and Technology, Budapest has museums devoted to transport, electrical engineering, agriculture, natural history, and foundries.

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