Since World War II, the government has broadened health services by building new hospitals and providing more clinics and medical personnel. As of 1999, total health care expenditure was estimated at 8.4% of GDP. Also as of 1999, there were an estimated 4.1 physicians and 5 hospital beds per 1,000 people. There are severe air quality problems in Athens. Pulmonary tuberculosis, dysentery, and malaria, which were once endemic, have been controlled. The incidence of typhoid, which was formerly of epidemic proportions, dropped to only 149 cases in 1985 following the application of US aid to improve sanitary conditions in more than 700 villages. At present, 100% of the population has access to safe water. In 1999, Greece immunized children up to one year of age against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 88%, and measles, 88%. In 2000, the infant mortality rate was 5 per 1,000 live births. The total fertility rate in 1980 (2.2) has dropped to 1.3 as of 2000. The sharp birth rate decline since World War II has been attributed to the legalization of abortion. In 2000, life expectancy averaged 78 years. As of 2002, the overall mortality rate was estimated at 9.8 per 1,000 people. The birthrate was an estimated 9.8 per 1,000 people. A large percentage of Greek men (54%) and women (13%) smoked between 1986 and 1994.
As of 1999, the number of people living with HIV/AIDS was estimated at 8,000 and deaths from AIDS that year were estimated at fewer than 100. HIV prevalence was 0.2 per 100 adults.