The population of Germany in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 82,476,000, which placed it as number 12 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 16% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 16% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 96 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 0.07%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 82,497,000. The population density in 2002 was 231 per sq km (598 per sq mi).
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 88% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The capital city, Berlin, had a population of 3,324,000 in that year. Other large urban areas included the following: Essen, 6,559,000; Frankfurt, 3,700,000; Düsseldorf, 3,251,000; Cologne (Köln), 3,067,000; Hamburg, 2,680,000; Stuttgart, 2,688,000; Munich (München), 2,306,000; Mannheim, 1,617,000; Hanover (Hannover), 1,293,000; Bielefeld, 1,304,000; Nurenberg (Nürnberg), 1,199,000; Aachen, 1,069,000; Karlsruhe, 985,000; Saarland, 898,000; and Bremen, 887,000. According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000–2005 was0.2%.
Because of a low birthrate and an aging population, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) fell in population between 1973–78 and 1982–86. Germany lost population not only because of these factors but also because of emigration. A heavy influx of immigrants in the 1990s more than compensated for the slight population loss due to more deaths than births. Although the annual growth rate in the 1980s was only 0.1%, immigration in the 1990s led to an annual growth rate of 0.8%.