Estonia - Science and technology

The Academy of Sciences, founded in 1938, has divisions of astronomy and physics, informatics and technical sciences, and biology, geology, and chemistry, and research institutes devoted to biology, ecology, experimental biology, zoology and botany, environmental biology, marine sciences, astrophysics and atmospheric physics, chemical physics and biophysics, chemistry, geology, physics, computer research and design, cybernetics, and energy. Other research institutes in the country are devoted to preventive medicine and oil shale research. Tallinn Technical University (founded in 1918) offers science and engineering degrees. The University of Tartu, founded in 1632, has faculties of biology and geography, mathematics, medicine, and physics and chemistry, as well as an institute of general and molecular pathology. Estonian Agricultural University was founded in1951. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 27% of university enrollment. In the same period, expenditures for research and development totaled 0.6% of GNP; 2,017 scientists and 391 technicians per million people were engaged in research and development.

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