The population of Estonia in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 1,323,000, which placed it as number 147 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 15% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 18% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 85 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is -1.10%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 1,159,000. The population density in 2002 was 30 per sq km (78 per sq mi). The northern portion of the country is the most densely populated.
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 69% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The capital city, Tallinn, had a population of 397,000 in that year. Other large cities and their populations were Tartu, 109,133; Narva, 80,491; Kohtla-Järve, 56,141; and Pärnu, 52,085. According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000–2005 was -1.0%.