Czech Republic - Judicial system

Under the 1992 constitution, the judiciary has been completely reorganized to provide for a system of courts which includes a Supreme Court; a supreme administrative court; high, regional, and district courts; and a constitutional court. The Supreme Court is the highest appellate court. The 15-member constitutional court created in 1993 rules on the constitutionality of legislation. Constitutional court judges are appointed by the president, subject to Senate approval, for ten-year terms. Military courts were abolished in 1993 and their functions transferred to the civil court system. The new judiciary is independent from the executive and legislative branches and appears to be impartial in its application of the law. Criminal defendants are entitled to fair and open public trials. They have the right to have counsel and enjoy a presumption of innocence.

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