The Czech Republic has a democratic government, based on a bicameral parliamentary democracy and the free association of political parties. Human and civil rights are guaranteed by the Bill of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms, a part of the constitution. The constitution of the Czech Republic was adopted by the Czech legislature in December 1992. It mandates a parliament; a Senate with 81 members who are elected for six-year terms, and a Chamber of Deputies or lower house of 200 members who are elected for four-year terms. Every two years, one third of the Senate's seats come up for reelection. The first Senatorial elections were held in November 1996. The Chamber of Deputies was first seated by popular vote in 1992. The last elections took place in June 2002. A resolution by parliament is passed by a clear majority, while a constitutional bill or an international treaty must be passed by at least a 60% majority. All citizens over the age of 18 can vote.
The head of the executive branch is the president, who is elected by parliament for a five-year term, and may serve two terms successively. The president is the supreme commander of the armed forces and has the power to veto bills passed by parliament under certain conditions. The prime minister, or premier, comes from the majority party, or a coalition, and is appointed by the president. The president appoints the ministers of the government on the recommendation of the prime minister.