The country's top seven industries in 2002 were, in order, steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, and bauxite. Mining output, which accounted for more than 10% of industrial production, rose by 10.4% in 2000. Iron ore production was centered in Vareš, Jablanica, Ljubija, and Radovan; lead and zinc ore was mined at Olovo, Vareš, and Srebrenica; manganese ore operations were centered at Bosanska Krupa; bauxite deposits were worked at Vlasenica, Zvornik, and Banja Luka; substantial nickel deposits had been worked near Visegrad; and substantial nickel deposits had been worked near Visegrad. Energoinvest operated a lead-zinc mine at Srebrenica, a manganese mine at Buzim, bauxite mines in many locations, alumina plants at Birac-Zvornik and Mostar, an aluminum smelter at Mostar, and a petroleum refinery at Bosanski Brod. Before the civil war, Bosnia and Herzegovina was a major center for metallurgical industries in the former Yugoslavia and a major producer of bauxite, alumina, and aluminum. Mineral production estimates in 2000 were, in tons: iron ore, 100,000; bauxite, 75,000; lead, 10,000; zinc, 300; salt, 50,000; crude gypsum, 30,000; ceramic clay, 20,000; and ornamental stone, 20,000. Other nonfuel mineral resources included asbestos, barite, bentonite, kaolin, lime, magnesite, ammonia nitrogen, glass sand, sand and gravel, soda ash, caustic soda, and crushed and brown stone. Capacity utilization in industrial minerals mining had fallen to about 14%, and modernization and privatization were essential for long-term viability.