Bosnia and Herzegovina - Media

Due to recent government instabilities, statistics on media availability are difficult to maintain and so are subject to a wide margin of error. As of 1997, there were estimated to be over 303,000 main line telephones in use and 9,000 mobile cellular phones. In general, the telephone and telegraph network is in need of modernization and expansion. Service in many urban centers is said to be below the level of other former Yugoslav republics. As of 1999, there were 8 AM and 16 FM radios stations. In 1995, there were 33 television stations. In 1997 there were 248 radios and 41 television sets per 1,000 people. Most broadcasts are in Serbo-Croatian

In Sarajevo, the daily newspaper Oslobodjenje ( Liberation ) managed to publish continuously throughout the siege of that city despite power and phone line outages, newsprint shortages, and direct attacks on its offices. Founded in 1943 as a Nazi resistance publication, Oslobodjenje , which is published in Serbo-Croatian, had a circulation of 56,000 in 2002. In 1993, two of its editors received international recognition from the World Press Review.

Online access is extremely limited. In 2000, there were 3 Internet service providers serving only about 3,500 Internet users.

The constitution signed in Dayton, Ohio, on 21 November 1995, provides for freedom of speech and the press. However, the extreme ethnic segregation in various regions is reported to put the media in each area under considerable regional restrictions. The development of independent media is beginning to be implemented, through the sponsorship of private organizations, cultural societies, and political parties, along with Western aid organizations.

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