Metallurgical plants contribute to air pollution. Ongoing interethnic civil strife has seriously damaged the country's infrastructure and led to water shortages. Urban landfill sites are limited. As of 1995, the nation had 2.7 million ha of forest. Deforestation was not a significant problem. As of 2001, only 0.5% of the total land area is protected. Of 72 mammal species, 10 were considered threatened as of 2001, as were two species of birds and six species of freshwater fish. Endangered species include the slender-billed curlew, Danube salmon, and the field adder.