Malnutrition and the diseases associated with it are major health problems; 30% of children under five were malnourished in 1989–95. Malaria, typhus, tuberculosis, dysentery, whooping cough, measles, hepatitis, schistosomiasis, and typhoid fever are widespread, and sewage disposal of the most rudimentary type constitutes a general health hazard. In 2000, 69% of the population had access to safe drinking water and 45% had adequate sanitation. Civil conflict in July 1994 created a shortage of water, food, and medical supplies in Aden, exacerbating health problems. Since the 1970s, many new hospitals and dispensaries have been established. Medical personnel that year included 2,640 doctors, 120 dentists, and 6,480 nurses. As of 1999, there were an estimated 0.2 physicians and 0.6 hospital beds per 1,000 people. As of 1999, total health care expenditure was estimated at 5.6% of GDP.
In 1997, immunization rates for children up to one year old were tuberculosis, 62%; diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 57%; polio, 57%; and measles, 51%. Life expectancy in 2000 was estimated at 56 years; the infant mortality rate in 2000 was 76 per 1,000 live births. As of 2002, the crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, 43 and 9.3 per 1,000 people.
There were only 22 AIDS cases in 1996. The HIV prevalence rate was 0.0 per 100 adults in 1997.