The estimated adult illiteracy rate in 1995 was 0.3% (males, 0.2%; females, 0.4%). For centuries, Uzbekistan was a noted Muslim educational center. Muslim schools in the cities of Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent, and Khiva attracted students from other Muslim countries. In 1920, after the Soviet Union took control of the region, schools and mosques were closed down, and a secular state-funded educational system was established. The educational system is now being modified. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on Uzbek literature, culture, and history. Over 75% of the students are taught in the Uzbek language. In 1995, primary schools enrolled 1,905,693 students and employed 92,400 teachers. Student-toteacher ratio stood at 21 to 1. In the same year, secondary schools had 3,318,900 students and 340,200 teachers
There are three universities in Uzbekistan: Tashkent State University; Nukus State University; and Samarkland Alisher Naroi State University. There are several other institutions offering specialized training. In 1992, all higher-level institutions had 24,787 teaching staff and enrolled 638,200 students. As of 1995, public expenditure on education was 7.4% of GDP.