Except for Gulf nationals and citizens of the UK, most visitors must secure a visa in advance. Tourism is encouraged by all the emirates, whose varied scenery includes mountains, beaches, deserts and oases. Activities include visits to Bedouin markets, museums, zoos, and aquariums. Many large world-class hotels have opened in recent years. The emirates attract tourists from Western Europe during the winter, when the main attractions are the beaches and sunny climate. Tourists numbered 3,906,545 in 2000, with receipts totaling $1 billion
The cost of staying in Dubai, according to 1999 UN estimates, was $194 per day; estimated daily expenses for travel in Abu Dhabi was approximately $197.