The Turkmen Academy of Sciences, headquartered in Ashkhabad, has 8 attached institutes concerned with natural sciences and technology. In addition, six independent institutes conduct medical research. In 1991, the Academy of Agricultural Sciences was established, and in 1992, the Academy of Medical Sciences was created, both in Ashkhabad. The Turkmen A.M. Gorkii State University, founded in 1950 at Ashkhabad, has faculties of physics, mathematics, and biology. Also in the same city are the Turkmen Agriculture Institute, the Turkmen Polytechnic Institute, and the Turkmen State Medical Institute (founded in 1932).