Technically, Turkmenistan does not levy tariffs except on imports by individuals. However, in practice, the excise tax system applies higher rates to imported goods than domestic, effectively putting an unspoken tariff in place. Additionally, certain domestic products are exempted from the value-added tax (VAT) and, by special presidential decree, government regulatory agencies have the power to go into certain markets and determine the prices of domestically produced goods and the prices for which importers pay for foreign products. Certain imports from countries outside the rural area are prohibited or require a license. Turkmenistan is not a member of any free trade agreements and is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States customs union. It has signed trilateral agreements with Iran and Ukraine, Iran and Armenia, Iran and Bangladesh, and Iran and the Philippines and is pursuing more such agreements. Turkmenistan has most-favored nation status with the United States and Austria. Duties run from 10% to 100%, the average being 30%.