The population of Tajikistan in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 6,245,000, which placed it as number 99 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 4% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 42% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 99 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 0.86%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 7,252,000. The population density in 2002 was 44 per sq km (114 per sq mi). The northern and western lowlands have the greatest population density.
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 28% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The capital and largest city, Dushanbe, had a population of 523,000 in that year. Khojand (formerly Leninabad) had a population of about 163,000. According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000–2005 was 1.3%.