Industrial emissions and excessive use of pesticides are leading causes of environmental damage in Tajikistan. Over the last 30 years, increased irrigation to support agricultural activity has resulted in harmful levels of soil salinity, which damage the soil and threaten its productivity.
The nation's water supply is threatened by pollution and inadequate sanitation facilities. Overutilization of the shrinking Aral Sea for irrigation purposes has caused it to become polluted. Only 47% of the nation's rural population have access to safe drinking water. As of 2001, 4.1% of the country's total land area is protected. Five mammal species and nine bird species are threatened. Threatened species include the argali, Aral salmon, Tadjik markhor, tiger, and snow leopard.