Foreign income earnings depend highly upon cotton exports; since independence, the centrally planned economy has suffered from the effects of civil war, the severing of trade relations with other former Soviet republics, and a series of natural disasters. Short term, high interest debt accumulated in 1993–94 resulted in a national debt exceeding $780 million with debt service totaling $12 million in 1995. About $440 million of the total was owed to Russia, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan. Other major creditors include the United States, Turkey, China, and India. External debt totaled $1.23 billion in 2000.
The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2001 the purchasing power parity of Tajikistan's exports was $640 million while imports totaled $700 million resulting in a trade deficit of $60 million.