As a result of improved living conditions and mass vaccinations, significant progress has been made in controlling malaria, tuberculosis, venereal disease, leprosy, trachoma, typhoid, diphtheria, and encephalitis. As of 2002, the crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, 14.2 and6.1 per 1,000 people. The infant mortality rate was 6.8 per 1,000 live births and life expectancy was 76.7 years. At the end of 1985, Taiwan's public health facilities included 55 general hospitals and 888 health stations. In 1990, there were 22,300 doctors.