Among the many Chinese scholars who have lived in Taiwan since 1949 are Hu Shih (1891–1962), philosopher and president of the Academia Sinica; Chiang Monlin (1886–1964), educator and chairman of the Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction; Li Chi (1896–1979) and Tung Tso-pin (1895–1963), archaeologists, whose discoveries at the Anyang site laid the foundation for modern Chinese archaeology; and Tsiang Ting-fu (Ting-fu Fuller Tsiang, 1895–1965), historian and long-time delegate to the UN. Chang Ta-chien (1899–1983) is known for his painting of landscapes and figures and his copies of the famous Buddhist mural paintings of Tunhwang caves in Gansu Province. Lin Yutang (1895–1976), poet, philosopher, lexicographer, and historian, was one of China's foremost interpreters for Western cultures.
The outstanding political and military figure of Nationalist China and postwar Taiwan was Chiang Kai-shek (Chiang Chungcheng, 1887–1975), who was responsible for sustaining the spirit of anticommunism in Taiwan. His son, Chiang Ching-kuo (1910–88), assumed leadership of the Taiwan government from Chiang Kai-shek's death to his own.