The population of Qatar in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 610,000, which placed it as number 158 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 1% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 26% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 173 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 1.54%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 711,000. The population density in 2002 was 56 per sq km (146 per sq mi). However, much of the country is uninhabited desert.
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 93% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The capital city, Doha, had a population of 391,000 in that year. Two other major towns have grown up around the oil industry: Dukhan, on the west coast, and the port of Umm Sa'id, south of Doha. According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000–2005 was 1.5%.