The population of Palau in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 19,000, which placed it as number 190 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 5% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 27% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 114 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 2.11%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 26,000. The population density in 2002 was 44 per sq km (113 per sq mi). The government has curbed the high birth rate with family planning programs.
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 72% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The capital city, Koror, had a population of 14,000 in that year. According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000– 2005 was 2.7%.