There have been ad hoc political parties since independence in Nauru, but politics is generally based on personal loyalties and occasionally on issue-based coalitions. After DeRoburt's reelection in 1987, Kennan Adeang formed the Democratic Party of Nauru, which aimed to curb the power of the presidency. Eight members of parliament joined the party. As of 2003, the Nauru Party was headed by Bernard Dowiyogo, and the Center Party was headed by former president Kinza Clodumar.
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