Unlike its Central Asian neighbors, Kyrgyzstan has insignificant reserves of petroleum and natural gas. Kyrgyzstan's principal energy resources are its deposits of coal; subbituminous coal deposits are found on the southern fringe of the Fergana Valley (at Suluktu and Kyzl-Kyya), while hard coal comes from the west and northwest fringes of the valley (at Tash-Komur, Jalal-Abad, and Osh) and in the Tien Shan foothills east of Ysyk Kol Lake. In 2000 coal production amounted to 0.7 million tons.
Several large hydroelectric projects are spread along the Naryn River and its headwater tributaries, and a series of dams, built on irrigation canals, produce power for the manufacturing sector around Bishkek. The two major electric power plants are a 1,200 MW facility at Toktogul and a 760 MW generator at Bishkek. In 2000, electrical production totaled 14,700 million kWh, of which 92.4% came from hydropower and 7.6% from fossil fuels. About 25% was exported (mainly to Uzbekistan). Total installed capacity in 2001 was 3.8 billion kW. Consumption of electricity in 2000 was 9.8 billion kWh.
Production of oil and natural gas in small quantities comes from fields at the northeastern edge of the Fergana Valley; in 2000, Kyrgyzstan produced about 2,100 barrels per day of oil. Kyrgyz natural gas satisfies only a small percentage of domestic demand. In 2000, Kyrgyzstan's natural gas consumption was 1.9 billion cu m (67 billion cu ft), while production was only 14 million cu m (494 million cu ft). Most natural gas is imported from Uzbekistan. A crude oil refinery was built in Dzhalal-ahad in 1997 by a Kyrgyz-Canadian joint venture. It produces heavy fuel oil, diesel fuel, and gasoline.