The Ministry of Health supervises all health matters and functions directly in the field of medical care. As of 1999 total health care expenditure was estimated at 9.5 % of GDP. The Arab Department of the Ministry of Health recruits public health personnel from among the Arab population and its mobile clinics extend medical aid to Bedouin tribes in the Negev. In 2000, the infant mortality rate was 6 per 1,000 live births. Life expectancy was 78 years for both men and women. The fertility rate has decreased steadily over the years from 3.9 in 1960 to 2.8 children in 2000 for each woman during childbearing years. As of 1999, there were an estimated 3.9 physicians and 6 hospital beds per 1,000 people. The Ministry of Health also operates infant welfare clinics, nursing schools, and laboratories. The largest medical organization in the country, the Workers' Sick Fund (Kupat Holim, the health insurance association of Histadrut), administers hospitals, clinics, convalescent homes, and mother- and-child welfare stations.
The infant mortality rate was 6 per 1,000 live births in 2000. The maternal death rate is the lowest in the Middle East and North Africa. In 1998, 8 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births were documented. As of 2002, Israel's birth and death rates were estimated respectively at 18.9 and 6.2 per 1,000 people. Between 1990–94, immunization rates for children up to one year old were: diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 92%; polio, 93%; and measles, 95%.
As of 1999 the number of people living with HIV/AIDS was estimated at 2,400 and deaths from AIDS that year were estimated at fewer than 100. HIV prevalence was 0.08 per 100 adults.
Tobacco consumption has decreased from 2.6 kg (5.7 lbs) to2.4 kg (5.3 lbs) a year per adult in 1995. Between 1986 and 1994, 38% of men and 25% of women were smokers.