Iraq's minerals industry was dominated by the production of hydrocarbons. Crude oil was Iraq's sole export commodity in 2002, and construction materials comprised another leading industry. Other than oil, mineral resources were limited. In 2001, Iraq produced hydraulic cement, nitrogen, phosphate rock (from the Akashat open-pit mine), salt, and native Frasch sulfur (from underground deposits at Mishraq, on the Tigris River, south of Mosul), and probably produced clay, gypsum, lime, limestone, industrial sand (glass or silica), sand and gravel, and stone. In 2001, the State Organization for Minerals reported the discovery of sulfur deposits in the Western Desert, near Akashat. Production figures for 2001, in tons, were: phosphate, 100,000, down from 300,000 in 1999; sulfur, 98,000, down from 475,000 in 1996; and salt, 300,000. Production of all mineral commodities has fallen since the 1990 UN embargo on international trade. Damage to the minerals industry from Iraq's 1991 and 1980–88 wars has been substantially repaired. Geological surveys have indicated usable deposits of iron ore, copper, gypsum, bitumen, dolomite, and marble; these resources have remained largely unexploited, because of inadequate transport facilities and lack of coal for processing the ores.