Taxes on oil companies are the largest single source of central government income. Under the general corporation rate, corporate income up to Rp 25 million is taxed at 10%, income between Rp25 million and Rp50 million is taxed at 15%, and income exceeding Rp50 million is taxed at 30%. A 20% withholding tax is payable on branch profits after corporate tax. However, concessional rates are available for tax treaty countries. Special corporation taxes, with generous depreciation and other deductions from taxable income, cover petroleum, mining, shipping, airline, and insurance companies. Individual incomes are taxed at the same rate as those of corporations. An eight-year carried-forward loss for investment in eastern Indonesia is allowed. Indirect taxes include a VAT, which will replace the sales tax after 2000, and excise taxes on luxury goods.