The population of Indonesia in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 219,883,000, which placed it as the fourth most populous country among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 5% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 31% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 100 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 1.26%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 250,428,000. The population density in 2002 was 114 per sq km (295 per sq mi). However, population distribution is uneven, with 60% living in just 7% of the nation's land. Some urban areas have density equivalent to 17,000 per sq km (44,030 per sq mi). The government is continuing efforts to curb population growth.
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 41% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The capital city, Jakarta, had a population of 10,621,000 in that year. Other large cities include Bandung, 3,420,000; Surabaya, 2,507,000; Medan, 1,910,000; Palembang, 1,429,000; Ujung Pandang, 1,064,000; and Semarang, 826,000. According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000–2005 was 3.6%.