The ranges in altitude produce a climate with both temperate and semitropical characteristics, and the seasons are clearly marked throughout the country. Wide temperature variations are usual from season to season and from day to night. Summer temperatures in Kabul may range from 16° C (61° F ) at sunrise to 38° C (100° F ) by noon. The mean January temperature in Kabul is 0° C (32° F ); the maximum summer temperature in Jalalabad is about 46° C (115° F ). There is much sunshine, and the air is usually clear and dry. Rainfall averages about 25 to 30 cm (10 to 12 in); precipitation occurs in winter and spring, most of it in the form of snow. Wind velocity is high, especially in the west.