The National Council of Scientific and Technological Research (founded in 1967) and the State Ministry for Science and Technology direct and coordinate research activities. Among the principal research institutes, academies, and learned societies are the National Academy of Medicine (1904), the Academy of Physical, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences (1917), and the Venezuelan Association for the Advancement of Science (1950). Major research institutes include the Institute of Experimental Medicine (1940), the Venezuelan Scientific Research Institute (1959), and the Center for Investigation of Petroleum Technology (1979). All of these societies and institutes are located in Caracas. Venezuela has 20 universities and colleges that offer courses in basic and applied sciences. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 26% of college and university enrollments. In 1987–97, research and development expenditures amounted to 0.5% of GNP; 32 technicians and 209 scientists and engineers per million people were engaged in research and development.