Canada is made up of 10 provinces and three territories. Each province has a premier and a legislature. They function like those of the central government. However, the provincial parliaments are unicameral. In each province, the sovereign is represented by a lieutenant-governor appointed by the governor-general. The provinces are empowered to regulate their own affairs and dispose of their own revenues. Civil and property rights, civil law, education, health, labor conditions, licenses, management and sale of public land, municipal government, and direct provincial taxation are within the jurisdiction of the provinces. Although the federal government still exercises considerable authority over the northern territories, they now have elected legislative bodies. In the Yukon, the powers of the federal commissioner have been greatly reduced, and the newly formed Nunavut territory, an Inuit homeland, is semi-autonomous.
Each province is divided into municipalities, the number and structure of which vary from province to province. In Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, and Québec the first order of municipalities consists of counties, which are further subdivided into cities, towns, villages, and townships, although there are minor variations. In Newfoundland and the four western provinces there are no counties; municipalities are either rural or urban, the latter being made up of cities, towns, and villages, but again with minor variations. Municipalities are usually administered by an elected council headed by a mayor, overseer, reeve, or warden. Local governments are incorporated by the provinces, and their powers and responsibilities are specifically set forth in provincial laws.