Argentina has five scientific academies: an academy of agronomy and veterinary science (founded in 1909); an academy of exact, physical, and natural sciences (1874); an academy of medicine (1822); and the National Academies of Sciences of Córdoba (1869) and Buenos Aires (1935). Numerous agricultural, medical, scientific, and technological research institutes exist in Argentina, including, as of 1996, 51 operated by the National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (founded in 1958) and 27 by the National Institute of Industrial Technology (founded in 1957). Research and development expenditures in 1987–97 amounted to 0.4% of GNP. Argentina has 47 universities and colleges offering training in basic and applied sciences. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 28% of college and university enrollments.
In 1987–97, 147 technicians and 660 scientists and engineers per million people were engaged in research and development.