The population of Togo in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 4,909,000, which placed it as number 112 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 2% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 47% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 98 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 2.34%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 6,351,000. Togo is one of the more densely populated countries in tropical Africa. The population density in 2002 was 93 per sq km (241 per sq mi). Density is greatest in the south, exceeding 200 per sq km (500 per sq mi) in some areas.
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 33% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The only city of major size is Lomé, the capital, with a 2002 population of 790,000. Other important centers are Sokodé, 60,000; Kpalimé, 33,000; Atakpamé, 30,000; and Aného, 24,000. According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000– 2005 was 4.2%.
The prevalence of AIDS/HIV has had a significant impact on the population of Togo. The United Nations estimated that 6% of adults between the ages of 15–49 were living with HIV/AIDS in 2001. The AIDS epidemic causes higher death and infant mortality rates, and lowers life expectancy.