Each year, some 20,000–30,000 migrants from Senegal, Mali, and Guinea come to The Gambia to help harvest the groundnut crop. Gambians, in turn, move freely over national borders, which are poorly marked and difficult to police in West Africa.
In 2000 there were 185,000 migrants living in The Gambia, including 12,000 refugees. The migrants' stock made up approximately 14% of the population. In 2000 the net migration rate was 9.1 migrants per 1,000 population, down from 13.3 per 1,000 in 1990. The government views the immigration level as too high.