The cooperative movement, which began in the 1930s, has achieved some importance, especially in the irrigation schemes. In the Gezirah Scheme, tenant farmers have formed many cultural, educational, and recreational groupings.
The Sudan Chamber of Commerce (Khartoum), comprising both local and foreign business interests, performs various functions for the government. There are several smaller chambers, most of them organized by resident European and Egyptian traders. More than 30 clubs serve foreign and minority groups and business firms. Clubs are the principal centers of social activity in Sudanese towns.
The National Center for Research, established in 1991, promotes study and research in various branches of science. The multinational African Laser, Atomic and Molecular Sciences Network is based in Khartoum.
National youth organizations include the General Sudanese Students Union, Girl Guides Association of The Sudan, YMCA/YWCA, Sudan Boy Scouts Association, and Sudan International Youth and Student Movement for the United Nations. Other youth programs and organizations are sponsored through the Supreme Council of Youth and Sports. The Babiker Badri Scientific Association for Women's Studies serves as a social action group for the rights and education of women. The Red Crescent Society is active in the country.