Between 1984 and 1992, there were about 506,000 civil warrelated deaths. The government of Sudan announced a ceasefire in the 12-year-old civil war in the southern part of the country in 1995, permitting health organizations to accelerate efforts to administer vaccinations and distribute vitamin A. As of 13 June 1995, 30,865 children had received oral polio vaccines and 35,996 had been vaccinated against measles. Despite the extension of medical services and supervision, such diseases as malaria, schistosomiasis, sleeping sickness, tuberculosis (about 180 cases per 100,000 people in 1997), and various forms of dysentery persist. Guinea worm disease was reported in 64,608 cases during 1995. As of 1999 total health care expenditure was estimated at 3.3% of GDP. In 2000, 75% of the population had access to safe drinking water and 62% had adequate sanitation.
The central government operates most research laboratories and dispensaries. Hospital facilities and medical and public health services are free. In 1992, there was a nurse to doctor ratio of 2.7. As of 1999, there were an estimated 0.1 physicians and1.1 hospital beds per 1,000 people. There are very few private practitioners.
As of 2002, the crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, 37.2 and 9.8 per 1,000 people. About 10% of married women (ages 15 to 49) were using contraception in 2000. An estimated 9.7 million (89%) Sudanese women underwent female circumcision (female genital mutilation) in 1994.
In 2000, average life expectancy was estimated at 56 years and the infant mortality rate was 81 per 1,000 live births. In 1998, maternal mortality was 500 per 100,000 live births. Immunization rates in 1995 for children up to one year old were quite high: tuberculosis, 88%; diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 76%; polio, 77%; and measles, 74%. In 1990–95, 34% of children under five years old were considered malnourished.
In 1996, there were 1,341 AIDS cases reported in Sudan. As of 1999 the number of people living with HIV/AIDS was estimated at 186,000. HIV prevalence was 1 per 100 adults.