In the absence of coal reserves, Sudan has come to rely mainly on waterpower to meet its commercial energy needs. In 2001, installed capacity was 578,000 kW, roughly 40% of it hydroelectric and the rest thermal (mainly oil-fired). Production of electricity in 2000 amounted to 2 billion kWh, of which 49.2% was from fossil fuels and 50.8% from hydropower. Consumption of electricity in 2000 was 1.8 billion kWh. Sudan's most important generating plant is at the Roseires Dam on the Blue Nile River. Production difficulties, drought, and maintenance problems have led to an increase in private generating capacity since 1982. The burning of wood fulfills much of the total energy requirement.
Modest petroleum reserves, estimated at 262.1 million barrels as of 2002, have been discovered. The government is strongly encouraging the development of crude oil production, which averaged 209,000 barrels per day in 2001. With the inauguration of the Khartoum Oil Refinery in 2000, Sudan became able to supply all of its own petroleum product needs for jet fuel. Iraq and Iran also have agreed to assist Sudan in the development of its petroleum sector. By 2002 a number of international human rights groups had charged that Sudan was financing widespread human rights abuses with oil revenues, and Sudan's major rebel group had declared the country's oil installations a military target.