Projected adult illiteracy rates for the year 2000 stand at 42.9% (males, 31.7%; females, 54.0%). Most schools are operated or subsidized by the central government through 3.3% of GDP.
In 1997, 11,158 primary schools had 3,000,048 students and 102,987 teachers. Also in 1997, secondary schools had 405,583 students and 15,504 teachers. Of the total number of secondary students, 26,421 were in vocational training schools. The pupil-teacher ratio at the primary level was 27 to 1 in 1999. In the same year, 45% of primary-school-age children were enrolled in school. The University of Khartoum was established in 1956; in 1986, its 10 faculties had about 14,000 students. A branch of Cairo University was opened at Khartoum in 1955; by 1986, it had about 20,000 students. Other institutions include the Islamic University of Omdurman and the universities of El-Gezirah (at Wad Madani) and Juba. In 1990, universities had 2,043 teachers and a total enrollment of 59,824 students. Approximately 48% of these students were female, up from 27% in 1980.