The population of São Tomé and Príncipe in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 161,000, which placed it as number 174 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 4% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 48% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 98 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 2.49%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 212,000. The population density in 2002 was 177 per sq km (459 per sq mi). About 94% of the total populace live on São Tomé.
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 47% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The capital city, São Tomé, had a population of 66,000 in that year. Santo António is the largest town on Príncipe. According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000–2005 was 2.9%.