Health conditions are relatively poor, but programs of mass education in child and parent hygiene, as well as governmentsupervised health services in schools and colleges, have helped to raise standards. Campaigns have been conducted against malaria, tuberculosis, venereal diseases, and cancer. However, gastrointestinal infections, malaria, typhoid, trachoma, and tuberculosis remain widespread. The World Health Organizations and UNICEF have cooperated in the government's campaigns against eye disorders and venereal diseases. The current health system is comprised of three sectors: a public sector consisting of both the Ministry of Public Health and the Health Services of the Royal Armed Forces, a semi-public sector, and a private sector. These together have been responsible for the dramatic reduction in mortality rates. Reform is currently under way with financing coming from health insurance revenues and the budget of the Public Health Ministry. As of 1999, total health care expenditure was estimated at 4.4% of GDP.
In the mid-1990s, there were approximately 5,000 doctors and more than 26,000 hospital beds. There were 12 university hospitals, 20 regional hospitals, 45 provincial hospitals, 11 local hospitals, 14 diagnostic centers, and 377 health centers (164 urban and 213 rural). As of 1999, there were an estimated 0.5 physicians and 1 hospital bed per 1,000 people. In 2000, 82% of the population had access to safe drinking water and 75% had adequate sanitation. Between 1989 and 1995, 70% of the population had access to health care services.
As of the mid-1990s, children up to one year of age were vaccinated against tuberculosis, 93%; diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 87%; and polio, 87%. As of 2002, the crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, 23.7 and 5.9 per 1,000 people. About 59% of married women (ages 15 to 49) used contraception. Infant mortality was estimated at 47 per 1,000 live births in 2000. The total fertility rate in 2000 was 2.6 children per woman. The under-five mortality rate fell from 215 in 1960 to 56 children per 1,000 live births in 1995. The maternal mortality rate was estimated at 230 per 100,000 live births in 1998. The average estimated life expectancy was 69.7 years in 2000.