Livestock overgrazing, clearing of forests for fuel, and poor soil conservation practices have led to soil erosion and desertification. Pollution of Morocco's water and land resources is due to the dumping of industrial wastes into the ocean, the country's inland water sources, and the soil. Water supplies have also been contaminated by the dumping of raw sewage and coastal waters have been polluted by oil. The nation has about 30 cu km of renewable water resources. Ninety-two percent is used in farming and 3% for industrial activity. About 98% of the nation's cities have pure water, but only 56% of rural dwellers have the same access. Morocco's cities produce about 2.4 million tons of solid waste per year. The nation's environment is further challenged by pesticides, insect infestation, and accidental oil spills. Destruction of wildlife has occurred on a large scale, despite strict laws regulating hunting and fishing. Moreover, the drainage of coastal marshlands to irrigate cultivated land has significantly reduced the numbers of crested coots, purple herons, and marbled and white-headed ducks. The elimination of living areas for Morocco's wildlife threatens 18 of the nation's mammal species and 11 bird species. About 182 plant species are also endangered. Endangered species in Morocco include the Barbary hyena, Barbary leopard, waldrapp, Spanish imperial eagle, Mediterranean monk seal, and Cuvier's gazelle. The Bubal hartebeest is extinct. The Sahara oryx is extinct in the wild. The Ministry of Housing Development and Environment considers environmental impact as an integral part of its development strategy.