Mali has a shortage of trained scientists and technicians and relies heavily on foreign, chiefly French, assistance. A French tropical agronomy research center is located in Bamako. The National Directorship for Meteorology, also in Bamako, publishes bulletins on agrometeorology and climatology. National centers for fruit and zootechnical research are located in Bamako. A national association for mineral research and mining is located in Kati. The National Center of Scientific and Technological Research in Bamako coordinates all research activity in Mali. National schools of engineering and of medicine and pharmacology are also in Bamako. The Rural Polytechnic Institute of Katibougou provides instruction and conducts research in agronomy, agricultural economics, stockbreeding, forestry, veterinary science, and rural technology. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 12% of college and university enrollments.