Both the consumption and the production of electric power are small, even by African standards. Installed capacity in 2001 totaled 308,000 kW. In 2000, net electricity generation was 825 million kWh, of which 3% came from fossil fuels and 97% from hydropower. In the same year, consumption of electricity totaled 767.2 million kWh.
There are no known oil reserves, and all petroleum products are imported. The monopoly on petroleum imports and distribution exercised by the Petroleum Control Commission ended in March 1999. Low-grade bituminous coal reserves were known about for many years, but mining did not begin until the last decades of the 20th century. As of 1994, two coal mines were operating near Livingstonia; production that year was estimated at 60,000 tons.