France is the leading supplier of scientific and technical aid to Madagascar, and there are French research institutes in the country to study geology, hydrology, tropical forestry, and veterinary medicine.
The National Center of Applied Research in Rural Development, founded in 1974 at Antananarivo, conducts research into agriculture, forestry, fisheries, zoology, and veterinary studies. Also in the capital is a government department of agronomical research, the National Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, and the Pasteur Institute, which is devoted to biological research. The University of Antananarivo, founded in 1961, has departments of sciences, agriculture, polytechnics, and health sciences, and an Institute and Geophysical Observatory. The University of Fianarantsoa, founded in 1988, has departments of mathematics, physics-chemistry, engineering, and computer science. The University of Mahajanga, founded in 1977, has faculties of natural sciences, medicine, and dentistry and stomatology. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 25% of college and university enrollments. In 1987–97, research and development expenditures totaled 0.2% of GNP; 37 technicians and 12 scientists and engineers per million people were engaged in research and development.